An IP address is a numeric identifier assigned to each machine on an IP network. It designates the specific location of a device on the network.
- Bit – A bit is one digit, either a 1 or a 0.
- Byte – A byte is 8 bits.
- Octet – An octet, made up of 8 bits, is just an ordinary 8-bit binary number.
- Network address – This is the designation used in routing to send packets to a remote network – for example, 10.0.0.0, 172.16.0.0, and 192.168.1.0.
- Broadcast address – The address used by applications and hosts to send information to all nodes on a network is called the broadcast address. Examples include 255.255.255.255, which is all networks, all nodes; 172.16.255.255, which is all subnets and hosts on network 172.16.0.0; and 10.255.255.255, which broadcasts to all subnets and hosts on network 10.0.0.0.